The Physical Climate System

The Physical Climate System stream covers research across all aspects of the physical climate system, present, past and future, with strong links to climate impacts and mitigation. Key areas covered by this stream include:

Observations, measurements and modelling of the atmosphere and atmospheric processes. The stratosphere and troposphere.

Climate Modelling

Modelling and simulation of climate, past present and future, and of climate processes through Earth history.

Climates of the Past

Studies of past climate and climate change from physical and chemical proxies preserved in marine and non-marine sedimentary and environmental archives.

Clouds and Aerosols

Observations, measurements and modelling of atmospheric aerosol and particles. Earth surface – atmosphere interactions, including marine, biogenic, volcanic emissions.


Processes involving ice and snow; sea-ice; polar ice caps; glaciers. Modelling of ice sheet dynamics, grounding. Polar regions.

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

Modelling, observation and analysis of the large scale motions of the oceans, of ice and of the atmosphere.

Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Biogeochemical processes. Carbon, nitrogen and phosporus cycles. Nutrient cycles.

Oceans and Freshwater

Physical properties and behaviour of the hydrosphere. Ocean circulation, past, present and future. Monsoons, rainfall, flooding and inundation.

Predictability of Weather and Climate

Measurement, analysis and modelling of weather and climate processes; forecasting and modelling of meteorological extremes. Weather-related hazards.